Ammonia is a consisting of one atom and three atoms, NH3.
The nitrogen can easily gain a . Therefore ammonia is a .
The formula for ammonia is NH.
If a molecule contains NH. That group is called an amino group because it looks like ammonia. An is an example of this.
Ammonia has a strong smell, and is the starting material for the production of many important nitrogen compounds. Ammonia was first isolated by Joseph Priestley in 1774, and its exact chemical formula was found by Claude-Louis Berthollet in 1785.
Ammonia dissolves easily in , because the hydrogens and the nitrogen can form hydrogen bonds with water. In water the electrons around the nitrogen atom can easily capture a , forming an solution called ammonium hydroxide which is highly reactive and easily combines with many other chemicals.
Ammonia can be turned from a gas into a liquid by compression or by cooling to about -33 C (-27.4 F). In returning to the gaseous state, it absorbs substantial amounts of heat from its surroundings. Because of this it is often used as a coolant in refrigerating and air-conditioning equipment.
The chief commercial method of making ammonia is the Haber-Bosch process, which involves making ammonia directly from its hydrogen and nitrogen. Ammonia is also obtained as a by-product of coke ovens.
The major use of ammonia is as a fertilizer. It is either applied directly to the soil as liquefied gas or as ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, and other salts. It is also used:
► to manufacture synthetic fibers such as nylon and rayon
► in the dyeing and scouring of cotton, wool, and silk
► as a catalyst in the production of Bakelite and other synthetic resins
► to neutralize acidic by-products of petroleum refining
► in the rubber industry it prevents the coagulation of raw latex during transportation
► the ammonia-soda, or Solvay, process, is widely used for producing soda ash
► the Ostwald process is a method for converting ammonia into nitric acid
► in various metallurgical processes, including the nitriding of alloy sheets to harden their surfaces
► to provide atomic hydrogen for welding
► as a household cleansing agent
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